When it comes to programming, there are a number of different languages that you can use. Some are easier to learn and others are more challenging.
If you’re looking to upskill yourself, learning a harder language may be worth your time. Here are some of the most difficult programming languages to learn.
C++ is an extension of the popular C programming language. Originally created at Bell Labs by Bjarne Stroustrup, C++ is known as “C with classes” and employs object-oriented principles and techniques.
Many applications requiring high-performance and scalability are developed in C++. These include operating systems, browsers, graphics user interfaces, and games.
Among other features, C++ supports the use of templates that allow for the creation of functions and classes that can handle different data types. This enables reusability of code and provides for greater efficiency in programming.
Another advantage of C++ is its support for pointers. These can be used to store and access data in memory that isn’t normally accessible by other languages.
Embedded systems are often developed in C++ due to its ability to access hardware without sacrificing the functionality of the higher-level program. This allows for the development of gadgets like smartwatches and GPS systems that require fast and efficient development.
Java is one of the most popular programming languages in the world. It’s used for a variety of purposes, including client-server web applications, Android development and analytic data processing.
It was designed by Sun Microsystems to be a portable and cross-platform language that could run on different computers and devices without any issues. Its “Write Once, Run Anywhere” (WORA) philosophy ensures that the same program can be transferred between platforms.
Another key design feature of Java is that it is multithreaded and interpreted, which allows developers to create interactive applications that perform multiple tasks simultaneously. It also provides high performance due to the use of Just-in-Time compilers.
It is also a great language for big data analysis because it makes it easy to group and analyze large amounts of information into smaller groups for faster and more effective reporting. It also supports machine learning and data science frameworks, such as Deeplearning4j and MLib, which can be useful for analyzing and processing large volumes of data.
If you want to get into functional programming, Haskell is the language for you. It has strong static typing, purity, and immutable data, which help you write code that’s correct and secure.
The language’s lazy evaluation feature, which defers computation until results are needed, also helps make Haskell fast. It also lets you define custom control structures, and is easier to refactor.
Despite its reputation for complexity, Haskell is a great choice for developing real-world software. It’s used in a wide range of industries, including aerospace and defense, social media, web startups, and hardware design.
GitHub chose Haskell to implement Semantic, its command-line tool for parsing, analyzing, and comparing source code. The company cites strong static typing, purity, and lazy evaluation as the reasons for this choice.
Malbolge is an esoteric programming language invented in 1998. It is named after Malebolge, the eighth circle of hell in Dante Alighieri’s Inferno.
Malbolge was designed to be the hardest coding language possible, so it takes some time to master. The first program that was written in it, a “Hello World!” output, took two years to develop.
In Malbolge, code and data are stored together in the same memory cell. However, the memory cells that are used for code must be labeled differently from those that are used for data.
To write a Malbolge program, it’s important to know the ternary number system and the Opr instruction. The Opr instruction allows you to manipulate data words.
It also allows you to loop over data, which can be very frustrating. For example, Lou Scheffer used this technique in a cryptanalysis to create a Malbolge program that repeats anything you type into it.