With hundreds of programming languages available to choose from, picking the right one can be confusing. But, if you know what you want to do and where to start, it’s easier to sort the list into a few languages that are most suitable for you.
C and C++ are two of the hardest coding languages to learn because they place a lot of the burden for memory management on developers. This can be a serious issue for newbies who don’t have the experience needed to properly manage memory.
Almost all of the programs and systems you use in your everyday life, from Windows to a web browser like Safari, Opera, or Chrome, to your favorite game or video editing software, are developed in C or C++.
The main difference between C and C++ is that C focuses on the steps a program takes while C++ focuses on the data it processes. The result is a highly structured language that allows you to break your code into functions.
This structure makes it easier to build large and complex programs without getting overwhelmed by all the details. It also helps you reuse existing code to create new functions. The standard library is extensive and includes a wide variety of functions and data types.
Assembly language is a low-level programming language used for microprocessors. It’s the hardest coding language to learn and can be difficult to debug, but it’s also the most widely-used.
Regardless of CPU type, assembly languages include instructions that move data between memory and registers. These can be arithmetic operations, like addition and subtraction, or logical operations, such as bitwise comparisons.
In assembly language, these instructions are written in a mnemonic code that is translated into machine language by a systems program called an assembler. The assembler then produces object code, which consists of an operation code (“opcode”) and a set of operands.
An assembler program also calculates constant expressions, resolves symbolic names for program and memory locations and updates addresses when program modifications occur. This saves a lot of tedious calculations for the programmer, and makes the code more readable.
Scheme is a compiled language, so its programs run at near-assembly speed (not exactly, but close). It is considered one of the hardest coding languages because of its strict design.
It is a functional programming language, which means that it encourages the use of non-stateful operations and makes programs thread-safe. It is also hygienic, and can automatically avoid name clashes in macros.
The standard Scheme language is defined in R5RS (1998) and R6RS (2007), which describe standard “forms”-keywords and accompanying syntax-and standard procedures which perform common tasks. Some forms are classed as derived “library” forms in the standard, so they are often implemented as macros using more fundamental forms.
Originally created for practical mathematical notation, Lisp became the favorite programming language for artificial intelligence (AI) research. It pioneered many ideas in computer science, including tree data structures, automatic storage management, dynamic typing, and the self-hosting compiler.
The syntax of Lisp turns off many people, but it’s a powerful and versatile language that has long been used in a wide range of applications. If you’re looking for a language that’s not as popular as C or Python, it’s worth considering learning Lisp.
LISP supports all the arithmetic operations found in other programming languages, plus many unique ones as well. Most take either one or two arguments. Most are functions, but there are also some special forms that perform an operation on a variable without evaluating it. These include quote, setq, and a number of special expressions that are equivalent to a single symbol (for example, a).
Haskell is a purely functional programming language with type inference and lazy evaluation. The language is used mainly in research and academia, but it can also be found in some companies.
Haskell programs are typically shorter and easier to maintain than those written in imperative languages like C++. They are also less prone to bugs.
Strong static typing, purity, and immutable data are other characteristics of Haskell programs. These features help to ensure that code adheres to specifications and avoids errors.
In addition, Haskell is compiled ahead-of-time directly to native machine code by GHC (The Glasgow Haskell Compiler). This allows the compiler to generate efficient executables with good memory management.